I don’t know about anyone else but when I was training in Public Health, things like leadership education were largely missing. I was lucky to get onto the national Public Health Leadership programme over a decade ago now, and even luckier to have other training.
And yet leadership is an absolutely central function in public health, and leadership across systems especially. http://www.slideshare.net/jamesgmcmanus/leadership-and-ds-ph-update-oct-2014
You’ll be aware from a pile of postings, articles, slideshares and other stuff that I have an interest in (obsession with?) leadership in public health. This is at least partly due to reflections on my own failures and a desire to try and get it right. And it’s partly due to my training as a psychologist. In the last few months I have reflected again on my own leadership roles but also have done a number of sessions for new public health leaders.
One thing I have noticed is that Transformational Leadership models seem to be the flavour of the month at present. I have found transformational leadership models, especially when adapted to the public sector (e.g. the work of Beverley Alimo-Metcalfe on local government) very helpful. Try these links for more reading on this:
The last link above on Post Francis enquiry approaches is especially interesting.
But there are some challenges with Transformational Leadership models, before we go running down the road to apply them in preference to anything else:
- Some commentators feel transformational leadership is better in an organisation. When you work across a whole system, as public health leaders need to try to do, there are additional behaviours, styles and tactics you need, and you need to flex your style much more as a system leader across different organizational cultures than just transformational models would suggest
- Transformational leadership training is not always good at explicitly integrating the scientific background of public health senior roles with the leadership tool portfolio they need
- There is a very thin line between transformational leadership and dictatorship or bullying. Engaging people in your system and organisation is hugely important with transformational change and leadership and rightly many researchers are now emphasising this. Beverley Alimo-Metcalfe, who created among other things the Local Government Transformational Leadership questionnaire, has spent a great deal of time on the importance of this.
Dennis Tourish’s new book The Dark Side of Transformational Leadership (Routledge, 2014, £24.99) is a salutary read on the strengths and weaknesses of Transformational Leadership as a model and theory. He presents a significant amount of research on transformational leadership and case studies. The book has a good style, discussion questions and reflection questions and if you’re looking for a CPD text then do yourself a favour and give it a go. Even if you only read the last chapter on new styles of leadership and better ways of thinking about leadership.
But he makes a range of important points that Public Health leaders who are attracted to transformational styles:
- Tourish spends some time in his book looking at the (usually catastrophic) consequences of leaders with vision whose decisions have not been challenged or helped to mature by being reflexive or open to others. There is always the potential that leaders in trying to transform do as much harm as good
- Unregulated power in a leader (I’m sure many of us have been there, on whichever end) is not a good thing and a key part of leadership in a system is about being held to account as much as holding to account. Leadership seen as service, as enabling a system is better at that
- Transformational leadership models in people who think they know better than anyone else can become a justification for arrogance. Public Health has not always been a stranger to that arrogance about its role, importance and abilities.
- Transformational leadership which is all about the leader and not about the team or organization or structure can have, like any leadership style, profoundly negative consequences on others.
Transformational leadership has its place. But if you are a public health leader in a system which doesnt want you, or is dysfunctional, or where others think they know your public health job better than you, then I am unsure that transformational leadership is the solution. An adaptive style which enables you to assess situations and use a menu of styles, tools, tactics and mechanisms is more likely to be helpful. And indeed much recent research on leadership seems to be showing that across mutliple context systems that works. http://www.slideshare.net/jamesgmcmanus/adaptive-strategic-public-health-leadership
Trying to apply this is an interesting process, and I sat down one day with a group of colleagues when we were sharing challenges and perspectives. I have some rules of thumb on leadership which seem to be working at present:
- There is no Perfect style or perfect leader:
- I will never be a perfect leader and there will always be fallout from what I do. But thats not an excuse not to do better. Doing better is the whole point
- There is no single model of leadership which is right.
- The best “model” (or rather frameworkk which enables us to take different bits of different models) I can find at present is that of distributed, adapted leadership which is about leading systems. It takes in a range of elements including the transformational. You can find my presentations on this here
- Leadership is a journey towards being authentically you and truly effective. That journey never ends and we can all always do better
- As with all public health, science and art must be held in dynamic tension to be effective and authentic
- The science of leadership, good solid psychological science, needs to be taken seriously. But the more science I read on leadership, the more I realise it’s just as much art as science.
- Sources of reading and learning
- Do yourself a favour and check out reviews in decent journals like Harvard Business Review, The Psychologist or Management Today rather than buying blind in a book shop
- Rarely trust anything you buy in an airport book shop
- Do Read Harvard Business Review (even if you do find it in an airport bookshop)
- Models can be deceptive
- If a model or course sounds too good to be true (you will become an amazing leader in one day) it usually is.
- Be sceptical of people who espouse a model of leadership but have never led in your context. (If you haven’t spent a day in local government, how do you truly understand the context? .)
- Models will change and my learning and style should change as knowledge develops
- Over-reliance on one model is usually unhelpful because it limits your grow
- Think of Frameworks not models
- A framework tells you what sets of thing you may need to be doing rather than prescribing “this is how you do it”. These rules of thumb are my framework
- Ethics, Values, Vision and Context are as much a part of any good framework as tools and tactics and inventories
- Leadership cannot be context independent and be effective
- Leaders are set into not apart from the contexts they serve (so the “independence of the DPH” needs to be handled carefully here).
- Beware the “high” doctrine of leaders as great individuals. The context and the people make the leader as much as the leader.
- Leadership is a service to the common good or it is nothing
- Leadership is a portfolio of influencing skills and tactics to get to the common good (ok this is my bias, but I bet you have one too)
- That desired good will always be changing, like everything in life
- As the recent Kings Fund report suggests, as a leader across systems you need to be comfortable with chaos. Please note that my and your leadership style creates at least some of that chaos anyway!
- Dont expect people to be gentle and trusting of your leadership style if you cant spend some time being gentle and trusting of you and them
- Four golden functions: Nurturing, Guiding, Healing and Reconciling and Discipline (I dont mean sticks I mean holding a line and standard to keep people to) are important in leadership, and you need to be a receiver as much as a giver of these
- Leadership always has a dark side or down side
- It may be just the fallout from your style. It may be just the dysfunction of being human and imperfect. But leadership ALWAYS has a down side, at least for some of those your leadership touches. If we don’t deal with this openly and work out what to do along the journey then our leadership is unethical.
Anyway, these are the things that help me. It may be different for you. Let’s help each other on our journey.